Moses, Solomon and Ezekiel

Section IV, Part 5 – The Wonderful Numbers of Sacred Canon


Doug Krieger

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1Altar of Burnt Offering & Incense Altar

“And let them make Me a sanctuary (lit. “Sacred place”) that I may dwell among them.  According to all that I show you, that is, the pattern of the tabernacle and the pattern of all its furnishings, just so you shall make it” (Exodus 25:1).

It’s as if we’re dealing with the “God of Dimension” Who is meticulous in “pattern” – for “…see to it that you make them according to the pattern which was shown you on the mountain” (Exodus 25:40).  This “pattern” is inextricably adumbrative in its configurations – for the writer of Hebrews declares:

“Who serve the copy and shadow of the heavenly things, as Moses was divinely instructed when he was about to make the tabernacle.  For He said, ‘See that you make all things according to the pattern shown you on the mountain’…. Therefore it was necessary that the copies of the things in the heavens should be cleansed with these, but the heavenly things themselves with better sacrifices than these” (Hebrews 8:5; 9:23).  Therefore, it is recorded:  “So Christ was offered once to bear the sins of many.  To those who eagerly wait for Him He will appear a second time, apart from sin, for salvation” (Hebrews 9:28) . . . . Yes, we are dealing here with “a shadow of the good things to come, and not the very image of the things” (Hebrews 10:1).

Please allow me, at this time, to preface this document as both a devotional, as well as a tedious research paper – a rare combination of hopeful inspiration and amazing calculations validating the authenticity of these Sacred Altar measurements – measurements whose dimensions clearly detail their ultimate destination:  The New Jerusalem.

The three Altars of Israel under consideration are those of Moses – the Tabernacle in the Wilderness (a.k.a. the Altar of Burnt Offering); Solomon – The Altar of Sacrifice in Israel’s First Temple (a.k.a. the Bronze Altar); and, the futuristic Millenarian Altar of Sacrifice found in Ezekiel.  Truly, these three epic Altars of Israel reveal the “Triple Crown” of the Almighty’s intentions for humankind in that Moses, through whom the priesthood was initiated, encapsulates the “Priestly” aspect of the altar – in bringing God to man, and man to God; the Solomonic Temple Altar depicts the kingly ministry – the Lion of the Tribe of Judah; and the futuristic Millenarian Altar of Ezekiel is representative of Messiah’s prophetic ministry…our Priest, our King and our Prophet.

Moses’ Altar initiates a most mandatory work on behalf of the New Jerusalem and of Messiah’s coming as the “Suffering Servant” Whose first coming is likewise depicted in Zechariah as Joshua, the High Priest, who took our “filthy garments” and bore our guilt and shame, and was given “rich robes” for it was said of Joshua:  “‘Take away the filthy garments from him,’  And to him He said, ‘See, I have removed your iniquity from you, and I will clothe you with rich robes.’” 

Thus, was this high priestly ministry revealed – revealed to all who have eyes to see “Joshua, the high priest” for who he is:  “You and your companions who sit before you, for they are men of a sign of wonder; for behold, I am bringing forth My servant the BRANCH.  For behold, the stone that I have laid before Joshua:  Upon the stone are seven eyes.  Behold, I will engrave its inscription,’ Says the LORD of hosts, ‘And I will remove the iniquity of that land in one day’” (Zechariah 3 – excerpts).

This “priestly altar” (for through Moses was the priesthood initiated) is followed by the “Altar of Kingship” as the apex of Israel’s Kingdom, the Solomonic Altar – the Bronze Altar – depicts the Kingship – which also is seen in Zerubbabel the Governor juxtaposed to Joshua, the High Priest.  It is this Altar whose immediate worth bears prophetic implications for the Kingship’s building of the Temple – for its extensions are amplified in the rededication under Zerubbabel to whom it was said:

“‘This is the word of the LORD to Zerubbabel: ‘Not by might nor by power, but by My Spirit,’ says the LORD of hosts, ‘Who are you, O great mountain?  Before Zerubbabel you shall become a plain!  And he shall bring forth the capstone with shouts of “Grace, grace to it!””” (Zechariah 4:6-7).

The “Lion of the Tribe of Judah” bears the crown of the Kingship – for though He at once is Joshua, our High Priest, He is simultaneously worthy to bear the crown of Kingship the second time – for it is Joshua who is crowned, not  Zerubbabel:  “Behold, the Man whose name is the BRANCH!  From His place He shall branch out, and He shall build the temple of the LORD; yes, He shall build the temple of the LORD.  He shall bear the glory, and shall sit and rule on His throne; so He shall be a priest on His throne, and the counsel of peace shall be between them both.”’ (Zechariah 6:12-13).

But it is not until we arrive at the futuristic, Millenarian Altar found in Ezekiel’s accounting that the Prophet is revealed – for, indeed, Ezekiel is among the most prophetic of texts.  The Altar seen in Ezekiel is by far the most majestic and awesome in its centricity.  In it the ministry of the Prophet is wholly discovered.  Even so, this part of the “Triple Crown” is seen in Zechariah’s revelation as the glorious and universal Lampstand, taking central position betwixt the “Two Sons of Oil” – Joshua and Zerubbabel, the High Priest and the King, the Priesthood and the Kingship.  Ultimately, it is this glorious Menorah, Lampstand, that shines forth in the Apocalypse wherein, “One like the Son of Man” (Revelation 1:13) shines brilliant in the midst of the Seven Golden Lampstands (the Churches).  Here is the Prophet with “His voice as the sound of many waters” and from whose mouth “…went a sharp two-edged sword” (Rev. 1:16) … for the Prophet speaks and illuminates, and the Truth is revealed…for “the Testimony of Jesus is the spirit of prophecy” (Revelation 19:10).

Moses, Solomon and Ezekiel – High Priest, King and Prophet – three Altars – three epic revelations and ministries which build the Temple, which sanctify His people and make them a “kingdom of priests” and, finally, call them to be His prophets:  “You must prophesy again about many peoples, nations, tongues, and kings . . . they will prophesy” (Revelation 10:11; 11:3) – for they are the “measured ones” found at the Apocalyptic Altar fulfilling their mission in following Him, their Priest, their King and their Prophet (Revelation 11:1-3).

MOSES – the Priest - Measurements of the Tabernacle’s Altars – Burnt Offering and Incense

In that the Altar of Burnt Offering and the Golden Incense Altar – whose patterns were given to Moses in the first “sacred place” in a barren wilderness – appear in stark contrast to the bleak scene wherein they made their first appearance.  God’s ways are entirely different than ours and often we find that the “wilderness” – a place of endurance, patience, testing and trial – is precisely where He desires to initiate His glory and commence His “pattern.” 

We have fused these two furnishings – the Altar of Burnt Offering and the Golden Altar of Incense – together in that their ultimate interchange in the Apocalypse does as well, i.e., later we shall discover that the Golden Altar before the Throne is readily in view in John’s Revelation, but the Altar of Sacrifice as seen clearly in Revelation 11:1 is as well.  These two are, in essence, but one heavenly Altar – and indeed, for the “Sacrifice of Praise” and our “ascended prayers” before the Holiest of All…before the Throne of God…are merged in their consecration and ultimate sacrifice of praise before Him.

Therefore, let us commence these “measurement proceedings” and determine the extent of the pattern shown to Moses on the Mount:


We read:

“(1) You shall make an altar of acacia wood, five cubits long and five cubits wide—the altar shall be square—and its height shall be three cubits. (2) You shall make its horns on its four corners; its horns shall be of one piece with it.  And you shall overlay it with bronze. (3) Also you shall make its pans to receive its ashes, and its shovels and its basins and its forks and its firepans; you shall make all its utensils of bronze.  (4)  You shall make a grate for it, a network of bronze, and on the network you shall make four bronze rings at its four corners. (5)  You shall put it under the rim of the altar beneath, that the network may be midway up the altar. (6) And you shall make poles for the altar, poles of acacia wood, and overlay them with bronze. (7) The poles shall be put in the rings, and the poles shall be on the two sides of the altar to bear it. (8) You shall make it hollow with boards; as it was shown you on the mountain, so shall they make it” (Exodus 27:1-8).

The simplicity of the Altar of Burnt Offering – bronze or copper being its overlay – should not be held in contempt because its size was less than magnanimous than, let’s say, either Solomon’s Altar and Ezekiel’s designed for the same purpose…for within its dimensions are wondrous truths to explore.

·        Length and Width is square – i.e., 5 cubits by 5 cubits – in that we have discovered the precise length of the Hebrew Sacred Cubit – thanks to astounding and persistent research by metrologists throughout the past two hundred years, as well as their counterparts within archaeology and other sciences (e.g., Sir Isaac Newton of physics fame); therefore….

·        5 cubits = 5 x 25.20” = 126” and this is equal to “9” (as in 1 + 2 + 6 = 9)

·        126” x 4 equal edges of this square = 504” which also is “9” for the top of the Altar and “9” for the bottom of the Altar of 504 + 504 = 9 + 9 = “18” (or precisely 1008 linear inches top and bottom) which is the Standard Measurements of the New Jerusalem and, as well, 5040 is Plato’s Optimal Number of social harmony, as well as governance; therefore, when divided by 2 as in 5040/2 = 25.20 which is the measurement of the Sacred Cubit.

·        3 cubits is the Altar’s height – therefore:  3 x 25.20 = 75.6” (which equals “18” New Jerusalem Standard of Measurement as in NJS*) and this one edge is a fractal of the 756’ of the base measurement on one edge of the Great Pyramid of Giza – having, therefore, all the potential to extrapolate into the measurements of the New Jerusalem in that 756 x 12 = 9072 (a cubed GPG) and this “18” is equal in inches to 9072 x 12 = 108,864 (or two number sets of “108” – which is a fractal of the radius of Earth’s Moon @ 1,080 Statute Miles and the “864” number set which is a fractal of the Sun’s diameter of 864,000 miles and both number sets are equal to “18” (1080) and “864” (8 + 6 + 4 = 18) and these two sets of “18” when added together produce the sum of “36” (as in 18 + 18 = 36) and “36” is the fractal of a circle’s 360° which connotes the Eternal God without Beginning or Ending (Please read below only if you can tolerate “Sacred Geometry” math!).

·        The total linear cubits of Moses’ Altar in the Wilderness:  20 cubits (top) + 20 cubits (bottom) + 3x4 cubits or four vertical edges or 12 = 52 cubits x 25.20” = 1,310.4”

·        *The New Jerusalem Standard of Measurement is “18” derived from Revelation 21:16 wherein it is said that “The city is laid out as a square; its length is as great as its breadth.…And he measured the city with the reed:  twelve thousand furlongs…Its length, breadth, and height are equal.”  A furlong is equal to 660 Imperial Feet (12” in one foot); therefore, 12,000 furlongs x 660’ equal 7,920,000 Linear Feet divided by 5,280 Linear Feet in one Imperial Mile equals 1,500 miles times 12 edges of a cubed New Jerusalem as so described is equal to 18,000 miles (as in 12 x 1,500 miles = 18,000 miles) – henceforth, this “18” is the Standard Bearer of the total six-sided cubed New Jerusalem and its 12 edges.

In conjunction with the immediate configurations above, we would highlight the fact that in John Michell’s Dimensions of Paradise (pp. 43-47) he discovered this set of numbers (108,864) in configuring the number of NJ units (i.e., NJ = New Jerusalem Units of 576 square feet per NJ Unit when using 22/7 as π vs. 576.19 square feet per NJ Unit when using 864/275 as π); however, it does not appear he connected the “dots” to the New Jerusalem nor to its most immediate planetary associations:  Earth’s Moon and Sun. In both cases, Michell uses the Earth’s radius as a fractal of 3,960’ (Earth’s radius is 3,960 miles), then calculates the area of its artificial square (replicating the square of the New Jerusalem found in the Revelation) and then calculates the area of its circle but using two different calculations for π as so stated (Note:  Area of a circle = π * r * r) and coming up with two separate number sets for NJ Units – by using 22/7 he comes up with 108,900 NJ units (i.e., 576 sq. feet per NJ Unit) and by using 864/275 (which is 3.1418181818+) he comes up with 108,864 NJ Units (i.e., 576.19 per NJ Unit) which is more accurate in his “New Jerusalem Diagram.”  His “square area” – using 7,920’ as the diameter/edge of the squared side remains the same (i.e., 7920’ x 7920’ = 62,726,400 / 43,560 sq. feet (1 acre) = 1,440 acres … naturally, in both illustrations this number is the same since we’re dealing with a squared area). 

However, when calculating the area of the miniature Earth (i.e., 7920 miles vs. 7920’ or its radius of 3960 miles vs. 3960’) and using π at 22/7 (3.14285714) vs. using π at 864/275 (3.14181818) to determine the area of its circle in NJ Units, the product of the NJ Units is altered.  The NJ Units go from 576 (22/7) to 576.19 (864/275) or the total number of NJ Units of the circle’ area itself is diminished (which was Michell’s preference).  The resulting number of New Jerusalem Units were determined under 22/7 to equal 108,900 NJ Units and when using 864/275 resulted in 108,864, a discrepancy of 36 NJ Units which Michell claims “is the area of a circle with a radius of 72 feet”; therefore, he suggests that this circle/radius be placed at the center of his New Jerusalem Diagram thereby making the area of both “Pi’s” equal


to 108,864 NJ units.  Michell wants to get to the 3,024 NJ units by using 864/275 for π juxtaposed to using 22/7 as π and arriving at 3025 NJ units in his 660’ radius example and doing a similar fete by using a radius of 3960’ and arriving at 108,900 NJ units using 22/7 as π juxtaposed to using 864/275 for π and arriving at 108,864 NJ units.  Oddly enough – and Michell doesn’t see it (at least doesn’t mention it) – by using the more accurate 864/275 as π he can achieve 3,024 NJ units in his 660’ radius/circle and using 864/275 as π he can achieve 108,864 NJ units in his 3,960 radius circle. 

Why are 108,864 NJ units preferred?  Because, says Michell, 108,864 is divisible by 504 and chimes in with Plato’s Optimal Number for social governance (likewise, 108,864/504 = 216 = The Name of God or is the fractal of the Moon’s diameter and a fractal of Earth’s Nautical Mile circumference of 21,600 and is also a fractal of six “Earth rotation days” @ 360° x 6 days = 2160° wherein man was created on the sixth day).  However, Mitchell’s point, though well taken, misses the cardinal observation that 3,024 is the perimeter of the four-edged-base of the Great Pyramid of Giza (GPG) * 3 (cubed) = 9,072’ x 12” = 108,864” of a cubed 12-edged GPG.  Both “number sets” found in “108,864” are equal to “18” (as in 108 = 18 and 864 = 18) which “18” is the Standard Bearer/Measurement of the New Jerusalem’s 18,000 Mile 12-edged perimeter.  Thus, the New Jerusalem’s 7,920,000 Linear Feet (i.e., 12,000 furlongs x 660’ = 7,920,000 Linear Feet) or 7,920’ is inter-related with the Earth, the Moon and the Sun, as well as the GPG – a most amazing correlation and, safe to say, hardly a happenstance association! 

Dimensions of Paradise vs. Wonderful Numbers of Sacred Canon

I would at this juncture insert a casual but striking observation throughout our comparing and contrasting with Michell’s Dimensions of Paradise and our less than renowned Wonderful Numbers of Sacred Canon (now in production, 2012) – or for that matter those of us who claim to be the object of Sacred Geometry and those that heretofore have written of our destination and its amazing integration with Sacred objects and mysterious metrologies the world over – that our thesis of the same is prejudiced due to the angelic intervention by none other than the Angel Palmoni spoken of in Daniel 8:13 (Holman Literal Translation) – a.k.a. “that certain saint…the numberer of secrets…THE WONDERFUL NUMBERER” – therefore, our undeniable emphasis upon the “18” of the New Jerusalem dominates our conversation – a number and those “number sets” which reflect its ostentatious and somewhat ubiquitous demonstration throughout Holy Writ, astronomy, music, physics, mathematics and a host of sciences…so numerous are its sums, products, quotients and remainders that its recurrence appears more so than virtually any other ultimate combination and this having been attested to in what is known as the *Gordonian Histogram which validates our thesis that “18” ubiquitous compatibilities insofar as the aforesaid is a proven mathematical reality – why, well, we just need a bit more algebra and we’ll nail it! (*Gordonian Histogram was designed in 2011 to determine the recurrence in number of “18”.)

That said, not only is “18” the announced New Jerusalem Standard of Measurement, but 25.20 or 252 take on far more significance in our writings than in the world of Sacred Geometry – because it is the key which unlocks countless dimensions given in Sacred Cubit fashion throughout Sacred Text – in particular, the 51 or 66 books of the Book of books.  Furthermore, connection to the Great Pyramid of Giza (GPG) is seen as that Altar to the LORD in the midst of Egypt and, therefore, more readily are its measurements taken into account in our calculations.  Moreover, the persistence of Messiah occurs throughout our accounting and His relationship to the New Jerusalem, as well as His ministry past and future – as in the numbers:  27, 30, 33, 45 and the name of God as in 36, 72 and 216 – we take umbrage regarding the “Christian myth” and the “legends of the Christ” – in that our affirmations relative to Sacred Judeo-Christian text demand, not only “deliverance” but view reconciliation as “God wrought and God bought” not affected by human manipulation but by divine intervention.

And, of course, further clarification as to the numbers which reflect the New Jerusalem as in 792 and 144 and their association with the GPG, as well as the metrologies of Moon and Sun, let alone our entire solar system as is described in other sections in our text.  On the one hand it simply is not academically fair to analyze John Michell’s Dimensions of Paradise without his retort (now that he’s passed from this earthly clod); however, I am sure a hefty response from others within the Sacred Geometry community will be forthcoming and then an abundant synthesis will hopefully result to the benefit of all.

The Altar in the Wilderness

Now…back to Moses’ Altar in the Wilderness….

·        75.6” x 4 height edges of this cubical (three-dimensional) Altar = 302.4” (for it is 3 cubits in height or 3 x 25.20” = 75.6”) which, of course, is the fractal of the perimeter of the Great Pyramid of Giza at 3024 Linear Feet (4 x 756’ = 3024’) and 3024’ x 12” = 36,288 Linear Feet of a flat 4-edged base of the GPG – likewise, as we shall see it is precisely the measurement of the Altar Hearth of Ezekiel’s Millenarian Temple which hearth is 12 Cubits in Length and 12 Cubits in Width or 12 x 25.20” = 302.4” (Ezekiel 43:13-17).

·        Sum of all linear inch measurements of the Altar of Burnt Offering:  1008” (top and bottom measurements) + 302.4” = 1,310.4 Linear Inches = “9” or 1 x 3 x 1 x 4 = “12” (in both number sets – sum and product – God (3) seeks to redeem humanity (Man= 6 as in 3 + 6 = 9 or Creation = 4 as in 3 (Triune God) x 4 = 12)

·        Surface Area of the Altar:  75.6” x 126” = 9,525.6” x 4 (sides of Altar) = 38,102.4 sq. inches= “18” NJS

·        Surface Area of the Altar: 126” x 126” = 15,876 x 2 (top and bottom of Altar) = 31,752 sq. in. = “18” NJS

·        Combined Surface Area of Altar:  38,102.4 sq. in. + 31,752 sq. in. = 69,854.4 sq. inches = “36” (as in 6 + 9 + 8 + 4 + 5 + 4 = 36); therefore the entire Altar reflects God’s ultimate satisfaction and design for the Altar.

·        69,854.4 sq. inches / 144 (the wall of the New Jerusalem) = 485.1 = “18” NJS OR 4 + 8 + 5 + 1 = 18.

·        Volume or Capacity of the Altar of Burnt Offering:  126” x 75.6” x 126” = 1,200,225.6 = “18” NJS

·        When 1,200,225.6 is divided by the volume of one square foot 12 x 12 x 12 or 1,728 cubic inches the result is:  1,200,225.6 / 1,728 = 694.575 = “36” (as in 6 + 9 + 4 + 5 + 7 + 5 = 36) which connotes the 360° of a circle which no beginning or ending as presents the Eternal God to us.

·        The “cubit number sets” themselves result in a sum of “52” as in 8 x 5 (top and bottom measurements) = 40 cubits and the height of 3 cubits x 4 = 12 cubits and 40 + 12 = 52 cubits and “52” is the number of weeks in a Solar Year; therefore, the Altar of Burnt Offering is a very clear pattern wherein the Eternal God has purposed the Altar of burnt Offering to be a place of sacrifice and cleansing preparing God’s People for His ultimate plan and purpose of the ages:  The New Jerusalem – the evidence is overwhelming and the measurements repeatedly attest thereto.  This article’s focus is not upon the types of sacrifice and the richness of their meaning but is cognizant that God, the priests and the people are intertwined in their engagement in the Altar’s sacrifices – benefitting all three – and that the “once for all” offering of the Lamb of God, our whole burnt offering, suffices for eternity.

The Golden Altar of Incense 

The Golden Altar of Incense within the Holy Place of the Tabernacle in the wilderness finds itself in the Christian Sacred Canon “inside the veil” which was rent from top to bottom on behalf of the “blood of the Everlasting Covenant” – Jesus, our High Priest, entered in once for all sprinkling His Own blood upon the mercy seat obtaining eternal redemption.  Now, with boldness, we may enter into His presence “through the blood of the Everlasting Covenant” that we may obtain mercy and find grace to help in time of need.  Thus, now is the Golden Altar of Incense within the veil, before the very presence of God on the Throne (Revelation 9:13).  In that the Altar of Burnt Offering (Moses) and the Altar of Incense (Moses) is initially separated due to the veil – that veil in Christian theology is removed; therefore, not only in Pauline epistles is there this removal but in John’s Revelation these two altars (the Altar of Burnt Offering and the Incense Altar) are viewed as but one.

Likewise, the composition of the incense, that sweet-smelling savor, is of inestimable worth and full of glorious meaning – but we must move on to the measurements of this Altar of Incense and review its simplicity and brilliance, for it is overlaid thereon with gold, hence:  The Golden Altar of Incense – and it keeps this title into the Revelation – for only those prayers offered by our Lord Jesus on our behalf are of such quality and eternal value – and only those prayers uttered by the Spirit from within His people with “groaning which cannot be uttered” by our High Priest are acceptable to Him Who sits on the Throne.

“(1) You shall make an altar to burn incense on; you shall make it of acacia wood.  (2) A cubit shall be its length and a cubit its width—it shall be square—and two cubits shall be its height.  Its horns shall be of one piece with it. (3) And you shall overlay its top, its sides all around, and its horns with pure gold; and you shall make for it a molding of gold all around. (4) Two gold rings you shall make for it, under the molding on both its sides.  You shall place them on its two sides, and they will be holders for the poles with which to bear it. (5) You shall make the poles of acacia wood, and overlay them with gold. (6) And you shall put it before the veil that is before the ark of the Testimony, before the mercy seat that is over the Testimony, where I will meet with you. (7) Aaron shall burn on it sweet incense every morning; when he tends the lamps, he shall burn incense on it. (8) And when Aaron lights the lamps at twilight, he shall burn incense on it, a perpetual incense before the LORD throughout your generations. (9) You shall not offer strange incense on it, or a burnt offering, or a grain offering; nor shall you pour a drink offering on it. (10) And Aaron shall make atonement upon its horns once a year with the blood of the sin offering of atonement; once a year he shall make atonement upon it throughout your generations.  It is most holy to the LORD” (Exodus   30:1-10).

The Golden Altar of Incense Dimensions

·        41 Cubit Length and 1 Cubit Width and 2 Cubits Height

·        1 Cubit (width) x 25.20” = 25.20” x 4 (4 square top) = 100.8” (i.e., 4 linear widths top) and 100.8” (4 liner widths bottom) or “18” and “18” NJS

·        18 + 18 = “36” and 36 connotes the 360° of the Eternal God without Beginning or Ending as in a circle

·        2 Cubits the Height x 25.20 = 50.4” per edge x 2 on one side = 100.8” or “18” NJS and 100.8” (2 on the other side for an addition “18” NJS)

2 Sets of Side Edges = “18” NJS ea. and 18 + 18 = “36” which is a fractal of 360° of a circle which is the Eternal God without Beginning or Ending….and 100.8” + 100.8” = 201.6

·        201.6” = “9” (God-3 and Man-6) and 201.6” is the fractal of the diameter of the Moon @ 2016 Miles and of the circumference of the Earth in Nautical Miles @ 21,600 and is equal to 3° of the Great Precessional of the Mazzaroth or 216 years; and 216 is the Name of God.

·        100.8” is also a fractal of the Moon’s radius of 1080 Miles

·        Sum of all 12 Edges of the Golden Altar of Incense:  100.8” (four top edges) + 100.8” (four bottom edges) + 201.6” (four side edges) = 403.2” or 4 x 3 x 2 = “24” and 24 is the constant expression of Governmental Authority within the New Jerusalem represented by the 24 Elders which we affirm to be the same 24 given in the New Jerusalem as the 12 Patriarchs of Israel and the 12 Apostles of the Lamb (the Church) – the Gates and Foundations of the Holy City; likewise, “24” is the Jewish Canon of Sacred Text – the revelation of the One True God in the Hebrew Canon and the “24 courses of the priesthood (I Chronicles 24-26).” 

·        Square Area of the Golden Altar of Incense (top and bottom):  25.20” x 25.20” = 635.04 sq. inches. (top) = “18” NJS and 635.04 sq. inches (bottom) = “18” NJS ea. and 18 + 18  = “36” = the Eternal God (circle, etc.) or 635.04 + 635.04 = 1,270.08 = 18 NJS

·        Square Area of the Golden Altar of Incense (sides only):  50.40” x 25.20” (one side of four vertical sides of this six-sided altar – four vertical sides and its top and bottom “sides”) = 1,270.08 = 18 NJS (1 + 2 + 7 + 8 = 18) and 1,270.08 x 4 vertical sides = 5,080.32 sq. inches = 18 NJS (5 + 8 + 3 + 2 = 18)

·        Combined Square Area of the Golden Altar of Incense:  5,080.32 Sq. In. (four vertical sides) + 1,270.08 (top and bottom areas) 6,350.4 (all six sides) = 18 NJS (as in 6 + 3 + 5 + 4 = 18)

·        Capacity in Cubic Inches of the Golden Altar of Incense:  25.20” x 50.40” x 25.20” = 32,006.016 cubic inches = 18 NJS (3 + 2 + 6 + 1 + 6 = 18) and 32,006.016 / 144 = 222.264 = “18” New Jerusalem Standard and 32,006.016 cu. in. / 1728 cu. in. (number of cubic inches in 1 sq. foot or 12” x 12” x 12” = 1728 cu. in.) = 18.522 sq. feet = 18 NJS (as in 1 + 8 + 5 + 2 + 2 = 18).  (Note:  “1728”

The ubiquity of the 18 New Jerusalem Standard upon the Golden Altar of Incense convinces this author that the supreme purpose of the Golden Altar of Incense has everything to do with the preparation of the Bride of Messiah, who is called the Holy City, New Jerusalem.  Likewise, the Eternal God (36) as seen in His Name (216) has destined His people (Israel and the Church) as seen in the (24) to accomplish His eternal purpose for the ages.  The dimensions of the Golden Altar of Incense give absolute confirmation that this is the destiny of the people of God.  The prayers of the saints (24) are offered up to the Eternal God (36) in His Name (216) and all have but one ultimate recourse:  The New Jerusalem (18).

SOLOMON – the King - Altar of Sacrifice


Solomon’s Altar of Sacrifice is likewise known as the “brazen altar.”  Its location was east of the Temple proper.  Its form resembled the altar of the Tabernacle in the Wilderness; however, it was much larger:  twenty cubits in length (not 5 cubits like the Altar of Burnt Offering in the Wilderness), twenty cubits in breath (not 5 cubits as the Wilderness Altar) and ten cubits in height (II Chronicles 4:1) (Wilderness Altar = 3 cubits in height).  Thus, Solomon’s Altar was designed in ratio to the Altar in the Wilderness:  20x20x10 = 4,000 vs. 5x5x3 = 75; therefore, 4000:75 or 160:3.  Solomon’s linear cubit measurements on all 12 edges (i.e., 200 cubits x 25.20”) of the Altar were 5040.00” (5040 Plato’s Optimal Number) and Moses’ Altar in the Wilderness were 1,310.4” (52 cubits x 25.20”) – the difference between the two linear cubit measurements is most significant:  5040.00” (Solomon’s Altar) minus 1310.40” (Moses’ Altar) = 3729.6” or 3 + 7 + 2 + 9 + 6 = “27” and this “27” is the full revelation of Messiah, as the Suffering Servant, in Christian Sacred Canon of 27 texts.  Also, please note the tally of both altars:  5040 = “9” and 1310.4 = “9” and 9 + 9 = 18 which is the New Jerusalem Standard of Measurement – the “Altar” paves the way to the New Jerusalem and the two altars are linked via the Messiah (27) who came as the Suffering Servant to bear the sins of the world as per Christian theology.

The altar built by King Solomon (I Kings 8:64), became the new object of consecration during the reign of King Asa (II Chronicles 15:8); therefore, and no doubt, some restorative effort was made.  Asa removed the altar towards the north, and in its place he erected a similar altar to the one he had seen in Damascus (II Kings 16:10-15) – likewise, he removed the bulls from beneath the Cast Bronze Basin and he also “cut off the panels of the carts, and removed the lavers from them.” 

There is some evidence that indicates King Hezekiah may have restored some of the grandeur to the Temple and its furnishings, though the text does not indicate such; however, it does indicate that Hezekiah’s son, Manasseh, polluted the Temple (II Kings 21:4-5; II Chronicles 33:4-5) which was again restored and re-dedicated to Yahweh by this same King Manasseh after Manasseh was taken by the King of Assyria with “nose hocks, bound him with bronze fetters, and carried him off to Babylon…Now when he was in affliction, he implored the LORD his God, and humbled himself greatly before the God of his fathers, and prayed to Him; and He received his entreaty, heard his supplication, and brought him back to Jerusalem into his kingdom.  Then Manasseh knew that the LORD was God” (II Chronicles 33:11-13); then, it was at this time King Manasseh “repaired the altar of the LORD, sacrificed peace offerings and thank offerings on it, and commanded Judah to serve the LORD God of Israel” (II Chronicles 33:16).

King Solomon Built the Altar and the First 6Temple to Plan

“‘Consider now, for the LORD has chosen you to build a house for the sanctuary; be strong, and do it.’  Then David gave his son Solomon the plans for the vestibule, its houses, its treasuries, its upper chambers, its inner chambers, and the place of the mercy seat; and the plans for all that he had by the Spirit, of the courts of the house of the LORD, of all the chambers all around, of the treasuries … ‘All this,’ said David, ‘the LORD made me understand in writing, by His hand upon me, all the details of these plans’… Furthermore King David said to all the assembly:  ‘My son Solomon, whom alone God has chosen, is young and inexperienced; and the work is great, because the temple is not for man but for the LORD God’” (I Chronicles 28:10-12) (I Chronicles 28:19; 29:1). 

“Moreover he made a bronze altar:  twenty cubits was its length, twenty cubits its width, and ten cubits its height” (II Chronicles 4:1).

Again, it is imperative for us to understand that all of “these plans” given to David and communicated to the future King Solomon – yes, “all the details of these plans” – had to be followed with great precision for the Temple so designed was “not for man but for the LORD God”…and that is precisely what is going on here in all these dimensional deliberations.  The question is forthright:  This house is for the LORD God, not for man – this is what God is after and has always been after – to “dwell among His people and be their God and they His people” – that’s what all these plans are about!

Top and Bottom of Altar Square Area and Linear Edges

Square Area or Altar’s Top and Bottom

·        Top: 20 cubits x 25.20” = 504” x 504” = 254,016 sq. inches = 18 NJS (2 + 5 + 4 + 1 + 6 = 18)

(i.e., 20 cubits x 20 cubits = 400 sq. cubits or 504” x 504” = 254,016 sq. inches)

·        Bottom: 20 cubits x 25.20” = 504” x 504” = 254,016 sq. inches = 18 NJS (2 + 5 + 4 + 1 + 6 = 18)

(Total 400 sq. cubits + 400 sq. cubits (top and bottom) = 800 sq. cubits)

·        Top + Bottom Combined:  254,016 + 254,016 = 508,032 sq. inches = 18 NJS (5 + 8 + 3 + 2 = 18)

Linear Edges of Top and Bottom Edges and Height Edges

·        Linear Inches 504” x 4 (four top edges) = 2016” x 2 (top and bottom) = 4,032” Linear Inches (8 edges) –

·        NOTE:  2016” is a fractal of 2160 the diameter of the Moon and the 21,600 Nautical Mile Circumference of the Earth and the 360Earth’s rotation x 6 days = 2160 degrees; and, of course, 216 is the Name of God; however, to complete the Linear Edges of the given altar measurements we must add the 4 height measurements below…

·        10 Cubit Height (one vertical edge) x 25.20” = 252” (Linear) x 4 (4 height edges) = 1008 = 18 NJS and 1008 is the fractal of the 1080 mile radius of the Moon.

·        Combined Linear Measurements:  4,032” Top/Bottom Edges (8 edges) + 1008” (4 height edges) = 5,040 = Plato’s Optimal Number of Society and 1080 (Radius of the Moon) + 3960 (Radius of the Earth) = 5040.

Square Area of the Four Sides of the Altar’s Measurements

·        10 Cubits Height and 12 Cubit Length or 252” x 504” = 127,008 sq. inches = 18 NJS (1 + 2 + 7 + 8 = 18)

·        127,008 x 4 (4 separate sides of the cubed height) = 508,032 sq. inches = 18 NJS (5 + 8 + 3 + 2 = 18)

·        508,032 sq. inches / 144 (sq. inches in 1 sq. foot) = 3,528 sq. feet = 18 NJS (3 + 5 + 2 + 8 = 18)

Combining the Top, Bottom and Sides of the Altar sq. inch areas:

·        Top/Bottom Sq. Area in Inches:  508,032 sq. inches, added to…

·         Four Area Sides of the Altar:  508,032 or 5832 + 5832 = 11,664 or 1,016,064 sq. inches = 18 NJS = (1 + 1 + 6 + 6 + 4 = 18)

Volume of the Altar:

·        20 cubits x 20 cubits x 10 cubits) or 504” x 504” x 252” = 63,631,008 sq. inches / 1,728 cubic inches (or 12” x 12” x 12” = 1,728 cubic inches) = 36,823.5 sq. feet = “27” (3 + 6 + 8 + 2 + 3 + 5 = 27)

·        “27” = The Full Revelation of Messiah in Sacred Christian Canon (27 volumes).

·        Therefore, the “fullness” of the Altar is wholly representative of the “Altar of Sacrifice” wherein the “Suffering Servant” came as the offering for sin once and for all and it was “not for himself” (Daniel 9:26:  “And after the sixty-two weeks Messiah shall be cut off (lit. “suffer the death penalty”) but not for Himself.”)  The entire measurement of the Solomonic Altar from top to bottom in both its linear edge measurements and its “expression” as the “18” in its flat surface areas is wholly representative of the New Jerusalem but the “essence” – the “fullness” – of the Altar is wholly given over to the Lamb of God Who takes away the sin of the world – He is our “Burnt Offering (Leviticus 1:1-17; Grain Offering (Leviticus 2:1-16); Peace Offering (Leviticus 3:1-17); Sin Offering (Leviticus 4:1-35); Trespass Offering (Leviticus 5:1-13) – our fivefold offering.


The “centrality of the Solomonic Altar” – in front of the entrance, not on the side of the entrance into the temple – equates to the centrality of the cross of Christ.  All that He is in the offerings is not for Himself but for the New Jerusalem – so is the Altar’s measurements and so is the fullness of the Altar.

As we read these words we must read them with a profound understanding that as the fire of His acceptance fell, it fell upon an altar wholly committed to the Divine Purpose of that city which father Abraham sought:

“For he (Abraham) waited for a city which has foundations, whose builder and maker is God” (Hebrews 11:10).

Now when Solomon had finished praying, fire came down from heaven and consumed the burnt offering and the sacrifices, and the glory of the LORD filled the house.The priests could not enter into the house of the LORD because the glory of the LORD filled the LORD’S house.All the sons of Israel, seeing the fire come down and the glory of the LORD upon the house, bowed down on the pavement with their faces to the ground, and they worshiped and gave praise to the LORD, saying, ‘Truly He is good, truly His loving-kindness is everlasting.’”

Sacrifices Offered

Then the king and all the people offered sacrifice before the LORD.King Solomon offered a sacrifice of 22,000 oxen and 120,000 sheep. Thus the king and all the people dedicated the house of God.The priests stood at their posts, and the Levites also, with the instruments of music to the LORD, which King David had made for giving praise to the LORD—‘for His loving-kindness is everlasting’—whenever he gave praise by their means, while the priests on the other side blew trumpets; and all Israel was standing.Then Solomon consecrated the middle of the court that was before the house of the LORD, for there he offered the burnt offerings and the fat of the peace offerings because the bronze altar which Solomon had made was not able to contain the burnt offering, the grain offering and the fat.


The Feast of Dedication

So Solomon observed the feast at that time for seven days, and all Israel with him, a very great assembly who came from the entrance of Hamath to the brook of Egypt.On the eighth day they held a solemn assembly, for the dedication of the altar they observed seven days and the feast seven days. 10 Then on the twenty-third day of the seventh month he sent the people to their tents, rejoicing and happy of heart because of the goodness that the LORD had shown to David and to Solomon and to His people Israel.

God’s Promise and Warning

Thus Solomon finished the house of the LORD and the king’s palace, and successfully completed all that he had planned on doing in the house of the LORD and in his palace. 12 Then the LORD appeared to Solomon at night and said to him, ‘I have heard your prayer and have chosen this place for Myself as a house of sacrifice. 13 If I shut up the heavens so that there is no rain, or if I command the locust to devour the land, or if I send pestilence among My people, 14 and My people who are called by My name humble themselves and pray and seek My face and turn from their wicked ways, then I will hear from heaven, will forgive their sin and will heal their land. 15 Now My eyes will be open and My ears attentive to the prayer offered in this place. 16 For now I have chosen and consecrated this house that My name may be there forever, and My eyes and My heart will be there perpetually. 17 As for you, if you walk before Me as your father David walked, even to do according to all that I have commanded you, and will keep My statutes and My ordinances, 18 then I will establish your royal throne as I covenanted with your father David, saying, ‘You shall not lack a man to be ruler in Israel.’ 19 But if you turn away and forsake My statutes and My commandments which I have set before you, and go and serve other gods and worship them, 20 then I will uproot you from My land which I have given you, and this house which I have consecrated for My name I will cast out of My sight and I will make it a proverb and a byword among all peoples. 21 As for this house, which was exalted, everyone who passes by it will be astonished and say, ‘Why has the LORD done thus to this land and to this house?’ 22 And they will say, ‘Because they forsook the LORD, the God of their fathers who brought them from the land of Egypt, and they adopted other gods and worshiped them and served them; therefore He has brought all this adversity on them.’” (II Chronicles 4:4-22).

Perspective of the Temple Institute in Jerusalem Regarding Solomon’s Altar...

“The altar is the very heart of the Holy Temple, for all of the Divine service is centered around it: all of the daily and additional offerings, as well as the individual and congregational sacrifices. All of the major ceremonies in the Temple also take place in the vicinity of the altar: the Passover sacrifice, the bringing of the firstfruits on Shavuot, and even the rejoicing with the lulav branches on Sukkot all take place around the altar.

A Precise Location, From the Beginning of Time

“The exact location of the altar is extremely precise, and has been established since time immemorial. The altar built by King David and King Solomon in the days of the First Temple, as well as the one built later in the era of the Second Temple, were both erected on the very same place: for this was the very place from which Adam, the first man, was created. The sages stated: ‘Man was created from the very spot which atones for him’ (B'reishith Rabbah 14:6). Later, it was at this spot on Mount Moriah that Abraham bound Isaac upon the altar that he had built. Through that action, Abraham declared that this would be the place of God's Temple for all time.

The Horns and the Ramp

“The altar was built as a perfect square and was quite large . . . It was constructed of two main parts: the altar itself, and the ascent ramp. Both were constructed of stones and earth. On top of the altar at its four corners, there were hollow boxes which made small protrusions or ‘horns.’ These horns measured one amah [or ammah meaning “mother of the arm”] square and 5 handbreadths high, each (or, app. 18" x 18" x 15")….”  [Please note:  5 handbreadths high is considered 18” or 18”/5 = 3.6”; therefore, 7 handbreadths would be:  3.6” x 7 = 25.20”.]

Three Fires Atop the Altar

“Three separate piles of wood burned atop the altar. The largest of these arrangements was designated to receive all the sacrifices; the second provided the coals for the incense altar within the sanctuary, and the third was the ‘perpetual fire’ which constantly burned on the altar, as the verse states (Lev. 6:5) ‘And a fire shall burn there on the altar constantly; it shall not be extinguished.’

“A large pile of ashes formed in the center of the altar from the remnants of these fires. God commanded that the coals be removed from here.” (Temple Institute, Jerusalem)

EZEKIEL – the Prophet - the Millenarian Altar


The Sacred Cubit is 25.20”… Ezekiel Clarifies the Measurement

Ezekiel 43:13-17:  “(13) These are the measurements of the altar in cubits (the cubit is one cubit and a handbreadth) the base one cubit high and one cubit wide, with a rim all around its edge of one span (span = 9”). This is the height of the altar: (14) from the base on the ground to the lower ledge, two cubits; the width of the ledge, one cubit, from the smaller ledge to the larger ledge, four cubits; and the width of the ledge, one cubit.  (15) The altar hearth is four cubits high, with four horns extending upward from the hearth.  (16)  The altar hearth is twelve cubits long, twelve wide, square at its four corners; (17)  the ledge, fourteen cubits long and fourteen wide on its four sides, with a rim of half a cubit around it, its base, one cubit all around; and its steps face toward the east.” – Therefore its measurements are based upon the Sacred Cubit….

·        10These are the measurements of the altar in cubits (the cubit is one cubit and a handbreadth)” or 21.6 (long cubit + 3.6” = 25.20”)…

·        The Assyria Cubit of 21.6” or 1.8’ is the “base cubit” or equal to the fractal of 2160° or six rotations of the earth at 360° per day = 2160° +

·        “a handbreadth” = 3.6” – therefore, “a cubit (Assyrian 21.6”) and a handbreadth (3.6”)” = 21.6” + 3.6” = 25.20” or the measurement of the Sacred Cubit.  The 21.6” = “6” as standing for “MAN” (for Man was created on the sixth day) and, therefore, the Altar’s “sacrifice” is on behalf of man; however, the 3.6” handbreadth is equal to “36” which is the Eternal God.  The 6 needs the 36 = for Man’s redemption before Almighty God cannot be without Sacrifice – but only when the Eternal God is added to Man’s need for redemption does it reach the “7” days (360° x 7 days = 2520° or 7 rotations of a full circle of the Earth in 7 days) – therefore, is the 3.6” handbreadth added to reach the measurement of the Sacred Cubit of 25.20”.

·        Persia Royal Cubit was equal to “seven Assyrian hand palms” – therefore, the Persian Royal Cubit approximates 25.2” / 7 (Assyrian Palms) = 3.6” per palm x 7 = 25.2” = Persian Royal Cubit = Hebrew Sacred Cubit) (Note:  “All these are multiples of the basic palm breadth of 3.6 inches (91.44 mm) which was used by the Babylonians and Hebrews [and Assyrians].” – Source:  Gordon J. Row, The Cubit). The base of the altar in Ezekiel is one cubit high and one cubit wide, with a rim all around its edge of one span (Note:  The “span” was considered the distance from the thumb to the little finger stretched out and equaled 9”).  The “handbreadth” is acknowledged by the Jerusalem Temple Institute as 3.6” for when speaking of the Altar of Solomon’s Temple and the protrusion of the horns upon the altar they state:  “These horns measured one amah square and 5 handbreadths high, each (or, app. 18” x 18” x 15”) (Note:  “5 handbreadths” = 3.6” x 5 = 18” …therefore, “7 handbreadths” would be:  3.6” x 7 = 25.20” = 1 Sacred Cubit measurement.) 

·        Here we may note that the 3.6” is discovered by dividing 18” / 3.6” = 5 or 5 x 3.6” = 18”. 

·        Furthermore, and of great interest to us is the fact that the “horns of the altar” have the following capacity:  18” x 18” x 15” = 4,860” = 4 + 8 + 6 = 18 New Jerusalem Standard.  Thus, the “horns of the altar” have the ultimate authority of the New Jerusalem!  Likewise, the “18” is the New Jerusalem Standard and the “15” is one edge of the New Jerusalem’s Cubed shape – i.e., as a fractal the “15” equates to the 1,500 miles of the New Jerusalem.

·        “Some indeed are of the opinion that the handbreadth is to be added only to the six cubits (total – i.e., six cubits and then only 1 handbreadth added to the 6) and not to each of them; but the text is clear and expresses that these cubits were by or according to a cubit and a hand's breadth. So the Targum paraphrases it,  ‘and in the man's hand measuring reeds, one of which was six cubits by a cubit, which is a cubit and a hand's breadth;’” (Gill’s Exposition of the Entire Bible; Ezekiel 40:5)

·        “The description of the temple (for, according to what follows, הבּית is the house of Jehovah) (cf. Ezekiel 43:7) commences with the surrounding wall of the outer court, whose breadth (i.e., thickness) and height are measured (see the illustration, Plate I a a a a), the length of the measuring rod having first been given by way of parenthesis. This was six cubits (sc., measured) by the cubit and handbreadth - that is to say, six cubits, each of which was of the length of a (common) cubit and a handbreadth (cf. Ezekiel 43:13); in all, therefore, six cubits and six handbreadths. The ordinary or common cubit, judging from the statement in 2 Chronicles 3:3, that the measure of Solomon's temple was regulated according to the earlier measure, had become shorter in the course of time than the old Mosaic or sacred cubit. From the new temple, therefore, the measure is regulated according to a longer cubit, in all probability according to the old sacred cubit of the Mosaic law, which was a handbreadth longer than the common cubit according to the passage before us, or seven handbreadths of the ordinary cubit. הבּנין, the masonry, is the building of the wall, which was one rod broad, i.e., thick, and the same in height. The length of this wall is not given, and can only be learned from the further description of the whole wall (see the comm. on Ezekiel 40:27).” (Keil and Delitzsch Commentary on the Old Testament, Ezekiel 40)

·        “The CUBIT was a measure of length used by the Hebrews, Egyptians and Babylonians, being the distance from the elbow to the tip of the middle finger. So the CUBIT would vary by the physical size of the workman or overseer. This needed to be “standardized” if a project like the construction of the Temple was to proceed to a satisfactory conclusion.  Archaeological research has revealed that in Solomon’s day there were at least three different cubits in use:

(1) LAND CUBIT which was used for plotting the layout of the Temple’s courts and the surrounding terraces, it had a length of about 17.6 inches (447 mm)

(2) BUILDING CUBIT used in the construction of buildings was about 14.4 inches (366 mm) long

(3) GOLD CUBIT used in the making of the gold and silver vessels and the decorative work was about 10.8 inches (274 mm).

All these are multiples of the basic palm breadth of 3.6 inches (91.44 mm) which was used by the Babylonians and Hebrews. [Therefore, the 25.20” Sacred Cubit is comprised of 7 ea. 3.6 palm breadths or 7 x 3.6” = 25.20”   (Royal Cubit)

The Egyptian Cubit was devised about 3000BC and was standardized by a Royal Master Cubit of black granite, against which all the Cubic Sticks were checked at regular intervals.  The [Egyptian] Royal Cubit (20.62 inches, 524 mm) was subdivided in a rather complicated way. The basic unit was the DIGIT, a fingers breadth, of which
11there are 28 in the Royal Cubit. The digit in turn was subdivided. The 14th digit on the Cubit stick was divided into 16 equal parts. The next digit was divided into 15 equal parts, and so on, to the 28th digit which was divided into two equal parts. Thus the smallest division, 1/16th of a digit, was equal to 1/148th part of a Royal Cubit, (0.046 inches or 1.17 mm).  The accuracy of the Cubit Stick is evidenced by the Great Pyramid of Giza; thousands were employed on its construction, yet its sides vary no more than 0.05% from the mean length of 755.8 feet.” (The Cubit, Gordon J. Row)

·        The original measures of length were derived from the human body: the finger, hand, arm, span, foot, and pace. As these measures differ with each individual, they must be reduced to a certain definite standard for general use. The Hebrew system, therefore, had such a standard; the ell (“amah”) contained 2 spans (“zeret”), while each span was made up of 3 handbreadths (“efa”) of 4 fingers (“eba’”) each. This division of the ell into 6 handbreadths (i.e., if 1 handbreadth equals 3.0" then 6 handbreadths equal to 6 x 3" = 18" + 1 additional handbreadth = 21" but if 1 handbreadth equals to 3.6" then 6 x 3.6" = 21.6" and 1 additional handbreadth equals to 21.6" + 3.6" = 25.20") was the one customarily employed in antiquity, but it was supplanted in Babylonia by the sexagesimal system. The Old Testament mentions two ells of different size. Ezekiel implies that in his measurement of the Temple the ell was equal to a "cubit and a handbreadth" (xl. 5, xliii. 13)—that is, one handbreadth larger than the ell commonly used in his time (i.e., ell = cubit + 1 handbreadth = SPECIAL ELL). Since among all peoples the ell measured 6 handbreadths, the proportion of Ezekiel's ell to the others was as 7 to 6. The fact that Ezekiel measured the Temple by a special ell is comprehensible and significant only on the assumption that this ell was the standard of measurement of the old Temple of Solomon as well. This is confirmed by the statement of the Chronicler that the Temple of Solomon was built according to "cubits after the first measure" (II Chron. iii. 3), implying that a larger ell was used at first, and that this was supplanted in the course of time by a smaller one. (Jewish Encyclopedia, Weights and Measures)

·        “Cubit is a measure of length used by several early civilizations. It was based on the length of the forearm from the tip of the middle finger to the elbow. No one knows when this measure was established. The length of the arm, or cubit, was commonly used by many early peoples, including the Babylonians, Egyptians, and Israelites. The royal cubit of the ancient Egyptians was about 20.6 inches (52.3 centimeters) long. That of the ancient Romans was 17.5 inches (44.5 centimeters). The Israelites' cubit at the time of Solomon was 25.2 inches (64 centimeters).” (Richard S. Davis, World Encyclopedia)

·        This cubit was also much used by the Jews (33), and is so often referred to that it has eclipsed the 25.1 cubit in most writers. The Gemara names 3 Jewish cubits (2) of 5, 6 and 7 palms; and, as Oppert (24) shows that 25.2 was reckoned 7 palms, 21.6 being 5 palms, we may reasonably apply this scale to the Gemara list, and read it as 18, 21.6 and 25.2 in. There is also a great amount of medieval and other data showing this cubit of 21.6 to have been familiar to the Jews after their captivity; but there is no evidence for its earlier date, as there is for the 25 in. cubit (from the brazen sea) and for the 18 in. cubit from the Siloam inscription. (24) J. Oppert, Etalon des mesures assyriennes (1875);

·        “25.1. - The earliest sign of this cubit is in a chamber at Abydos (44) about 1400 B.C.; there, below the sculptures, the plain wall is marked out by red designing lines in spaces of 25.13 ± 0.03 in., which have no relation to the size of the chamber or to the sculpture. They must therefore have been marked by a workman using a cubit of 25.13. Apart from medieval and other very uncertain data, such as the Sabbath day's journey being 2000 middling paces for 2000 cubits, it appears that Josephus, using the Greek or Roman cubit, gives half as many more to each dimension of the temple than does the Talmud; this shows the cubit used in the Talmud for temple measures to be certainly not under 25 in. Evidence of the early period is given, moreover, by the statement in I Kings (vii. 26) that the brazen sea held 2000 baths; the bath being about 2300 cub. in., this would show a cubic of 25 in. The corrupt text in Chronicles of 3000 baths would need a still longer cubit; and, if a lesser cubit of 21.6 or 18 in, be taken, the result for the size of the bath would be impossibly small. For other Jewish cubits see 18.2 and 21.6. Oppert (24) concludes from inscriptions that there was in Assyria a royal cubit (7/6)ths of the U cubit, or 25.20; and four monuments show (25) a cubit averaging 25.28. For Persia Queipo (33) relies on, and develops, an Arab statement that the Arab cubit was the royal Persian, thus fixing it at about 25 in.; and the Persian guerze at present is 25, the royal guerze being 1+(1/2) times this, or 371 in. As a unit of 1.013, decimally multiplied, is most commonly to be deduced from the ancient Persian buildings, we may take 25.34 as the nearest approach to the ancient Persian.” (Weights and Measures, Encyclopedia Britannica)

·        Final Comment:  The notion that the 25” Cubit or 25.20” Cubit (or the 2.1’ Sacred Cubit or 25.02” Cubit) is obscured amongst the ancient measurements is without academic merit.  Flinders Petrie’s 20.63” Egyptian Royal Cubit and the so-called Assyrian 21.6” Cubit are well known in the metrology community; however, the ubiquity of the 25.20” true SC or Sacred Cubit of the Hebrews (found even among the Assyrians to be 25.20” – Oppert) is altogether a metrological phenomena which, unfortunately, has been touted about as inconsequential – a vain attempt to bury the Sacred Canon’s most obvious standard of measurement…fortunately, the British were masters at its sly incorporation into the Imperial Standard of Measurement whereby their entire system – which prevails amongst the Americans to this day – from inches to miles, from pounds to tons, from pints to gallons and on and on – how blessed are we to have their brilliance preserved to this day within the King James Version of Sacred Canon these glorious measurements for us and our posterity – all hail the Sacred Cubit’s preservation – long live the British for their genius and the Americans for their stubborn pride in keeping to this “anointed system of metrology” juxtaposed to a world absorbed by an alternative metric system with no basis in either Sacred Geometry nor the Dimensions of Paradise!  What joy to announce I am 5’10 1/2” in height and having a girth of 38” and a weight of 190 pounds, as I fill up with 15 gallons of gasoline and buy a half-gallon carton of milk at the store on a day where the temperature is measured in Fahrenheit and not Celsius – only in America…and where she has had her influence…I could go on mile after mile (not km after km), but the joy – so casually taken by we Americans (so oblivious are we to its merits) – leaves me exhilarated each time I read the word “cubit” in the Sacred Canon!  Yet, the LIE that the metric system is more accurate continues its perpetuation by the numbskulls – i.e., the progeny of several French savants who got it wrong, and then hid their subterfuge from the deceived public until this day!  Shame upon the so-called scientific community and their blind forbearance to this most unscientific account!  (Ref. John Michell, New View Over Atlantis, 1983, pp. 125-6)

Ezekiel’s Millenarian Altar’s Measurements

Contention as to Ezekiel’s forecast persists – this tome does not enter into those contentions – but examines the measurement of those Altars which foretell, past and future, “altar dimensions” – and affirm, that those calculations most definitely, under the sway of the Sacred Cubit’s measurement of 25.20” – abundantly proclaim the Divine Intention inexorably, irresistibly and persistently preparing the People of God toward their ultimate destiny:  The New Jerusalem.  Ezekiel’s Altar was tiered:  Foundation/Base, Bottom Tier, Middle and Top Tiers where the actual Hearth was located.

Therefore its measurements are based upon the above evidence and we must, therefore, conclude that the length of the cubit so mentioned by Ezekiel in Ezekiel 40:5 included both the so-called long Assyrian Cubit of 21.6” and an additional handbreadth of 3.6” (or palm).  Likewise, when mentioning “cubit” in most places in Ezekiel’s measurements, he had in mind the cubit length of Moses and Solomon, i.e., 25.20” which was an extension of the Assyrian Cubit (short) of 21.6” by the addition of a handbreadth of 3.6” to equal the old Sacred Cubit of Moses and Solomon – a rather peculiar way of announcing its length, however, for the day it communicated nicely. 

·        Foundation/Base: 1 cubit high and 1 cubit wide (base ledge) with a 9” rim around it.

·        Bottom Tier:  2 cubits high and 1 cubit wide (for its ledge)

·        Middle Tier:  4 cubits high and 1 cubit wide (for its ledge)

·        The Altar Hearth: 4 cubits high – the “14 cubits all around the Altar Hearth” at its base is actually the top of the Middle Tier’s ledge and is not counted in the width calculations

·        Beneath the Altar Hearth is a 1/2 cubit rim extending out from the Middle Tier’s ledge; it is therefore considered 1/2 of a cubit all around the base of the Altar Hearth but does not constitute an extension of the Middle Tier Ledge itself but is considered “one cubit all around” in that .5 + .5 (on either side of the Middle Tier/Altar Hearth Rim would equal one full cubit but not a part of the Altar’s width – please see graphics).

·        The Altar Hearth itself is 12 cubits by 12 cubits in length and width – a perfect square.

·        Base Dimensions:  Calculating its Foundation/Base length and width we must examine all “horizontal measurements” or “width” measurements; therefore:  Base = 1 cubit + Bottom Tier = 1 cubit + Middle Tier = 1 cubit = 1 + 1 + 1 x 2 (accounting for ‘front and back’) = 3 x 2 = 6 cubits + 12 cubits for the Altar Hearth measurement = 6 + 12 = 18 cubits.

·        Bottom Tier Dimensions:  Deduct 1 cubit from either side…the ledge of the base…therefore:  18 cubits – 2 cubits = 16 cubits

·        Middle Tier Dimensions:  Deduct an additional 1 cubit from either side the ledge atop the bottom tier…16 cubits – 2 cubits = 14 cubits

·        Altar Hearth dimensions are clearly given as 12 cubits

·        Summary of underside measurements of each tier:

Base Dimensions: 18 cubits x 18 cubits

Bottom Tier:        16 cubits x 16 cubits

Middle Tier:         14 cubits x 14 cubits

Altar Hearth:        12 cubits x 12 cubits

·        Square Measurements of the tiers’ bases only, using 25.20” as the cubit length:

(1) Base:  18 x 18 = 453.6” x 453.6” = 205,752.96 sq. inches = “36” – The Altar is based upon the Eternal God

and when the 144 Wall of the New Jerusalem integrates with the intentions of the Eternal God this is the result:  205,752.96 / 144 = 1,428.84 = “27” Messiah’s full revelation in Christian Sacred Text (27 volumes); therefore, the Eternal God, through the offering up of the Suffering Servant on behalf of the New Jerusalem is immediately seen in the Base of Ezekiel’s Altar.

(2) Bottom Tier:  16 x 16 = 403.2” x 403.2” = 162,570.24 sq. inches = “27” – Again, Messiah Revealed…and by dividing 162,570.24 / 144 = 1,128.96 = “27” confirming that the very basis – as a “double witness” for the Altar’s eternal purpose reveals Him as the Lamb of God, the Suffering Servant upon the Throne on that Final Day = though He is the Lion of the Tribe of Judah, He is forever the Lamb upon the Throne!

(3) Middle Tier:  14 x 14 = 352.8” x 352.8” = 124,467.84 sq. inches = “36” – The Eternal God…and when 124,467.84 / 144 (New Jerusalem Wall) = 864.36 = “27” Messiah and, as well draws attention to the “864” or the Diameter of the Sun connoting the “Sun of Righteousness” in fulfillment of Malachi 4:2 – “But to you who fear My name (36 – the Eternal God) the Sun of Righteousness (27 – Messiah) shall arise with healing in His wings (for the “144” the New Jerusalem).

(4) Altar Hearth: 12 x 12 = 302.4” x 302.4” = 91,445.76 sq. inches = “36” – The Eternal God…when divided by 144 as in 91,445.76 / 144 = 635.04 = “18” New Jerusalem Standard = The Eternal God has revealed Messiah and accepted His offering on our behalf so that we might be His forever:  The New Jerusalem.

(5) Combining all “tier base” measurements:  205,752.96 + 162,570.24 + 124,467.84 + 91,445.76 = 584,236.8 = “36” as in 5 + 8 + 4 + 2 + 3 +  + 8 = 36 = The Eternal God without Beginning or Ending is wholly committed from beginning to the consummation – from the base at “36” to the height at “36” and each time the Wall of the New Jerusalem (144) “integrates” with the dimensions of the lower tiers, the Messiah is there for them – there, until eternity and the preparation of His Bride is complete – for the Altar’s Hearth when integrated with the Eternal God’s Purpose produces the New Jerusalem as the Bride of Messiah:  18.

·        Linear Measurements by Cubit:

(1) 18 x 4 (edges) = 72 cubits (Base)

(2) 16 x 4 (edges) = 64 cubits (Bottom Tier)

(3) 14 x 4 (edges) = 56 cubits (Middle Tier)

(4) 12 x 4 (edges) = 48 cubits (Altar Hearth)

Total = 240 Linear Cubits +

Linear Rim at Base = 18 x 4 = 72 cubits (linear)

Linear Rim atop the Middle Tier = 14 x 4 = 56 cubits (linear)

Total Linear Rim Cubits = 72 + 56 = 128 Linear Cubits of Rim

Grand Total of All Linear Cubits given in the Altar’s Linear Measurements:  240 + 128 = 368 Cubits

368 Cubits x 25.20” (per cubit) = 9,273.6 Linear Inches = “27” = 9 + 2 + 7 + 3 + 6 = 27 = The full revelation of Messiah in Sacred Christian Canon – “Behold, the Lamb of God Who takes away the sin of the world!”  And for whom did He die?  For Messiah was “cut off, but not for Himself” – therefore:  The total 368 Cubits tell us clearly:  3 x 6 x 8 = 144 the Wall of the New Jerusalem – He came for you, for me, to be His Bride – is it any wonder we are called “THE WOMAN, THE LAMB’S WIFE…and showed me the Holy City, Jerusalem, descending out of heaven from God” (Revelation 21:9-10).


·        Surface Measurements of each tier – vertical and horizontal ledges atop each:

Base Surfaces Exposed Side:  Vertical Sides – 1 cubit x 18 cubits x 4 surface/base sides = 25.20” x 453.6” = 11,430.72 sq. inches x 4 exposed sides = 45,722.88 sq. inches (all base vertical sides) + Horizontal ledge measurements of 1 cubit wide ledge (without overlap) = 453.6” x 25.20 x 2 (full ledge sides matching vertical side panels) = 22,861.44 sq. inches + 2 “shortened horizontal ledge” measurements or 25.20” x 16 cubits or 403.2” = 10,160.64 sq. inches x 2 shortened horizontal ledges = 20,321.28 sq. in. for a total horizontal surface area:  43,182.72 sq. inches (horizontal area).  Combined vertical and horizontal = 45,722.88 sq. in. + 43,182.72 sq. inches = 88,905.6 = “36”… But to this figure (“36”) we must add the attached 9” Rim below…for it is so attached to the surface area at the base….(see immediately below for final calculation)….

·        9” Rim at Base (all around) or 9” x 18 cubits or 9” x 693.6” x 4 (ledge sides) = 24,969.6 sq. inches

(Note:  We are aware of the “overlap” at the ends where the edges connect and have simply taken the plain surface calculation – i.e., end to end, rather than going into an elaborate removal of the “tailings” – a straight 693.6 x 9” on each side is calculated.); therefore the Grand Total Sum:  88,905.6 sq. inches (vertical and horizontal surface areas at the base of the Altar + 24,969.6 sq. inches (9” Perimeter Rim attached to base) = 113,875.2 = “27” (1 + 1 + 3 + 8 + 7 + 5 + 2 = 27) in that the full revelation of Messiah in the Christian Sacred Canon discloses that the base of the Altar is the sacrifice of the Son for our full redemption and that the Father (36) sent the Son (27) to be the Redeemer and Savior – throughout all eternity we will behold Him as the “Lamb slain from the foundation of the world” (Revelation 13:8).

·        (Note:  9” on one side and 9” on the other side at the base (north and south sides) and east and west (omitting the steps would be similar at 9” + 9” = 18 therefore 2 sets of “18” = 36 (18 + 18 = 36) validating that the Eternal God (360° circle) has established the Millenarian Altar for the New Jerusalem (18)).

·        Bottom Tier (2 cubits vertical x 16 cubit length/width) and 1 cubit horizontal ledge = therefore:  4 full vertical sides = 50.4” x 403.2” = 20,321.28 sq. inches x 4 = 81,285.12 sq. inches + 1 cubit ledge atop bottom tier = 25.20” x 16 cubits  or 25.20” x 403.2” = 10,160.64 sq. inches x 2 (north and south sides) = 20,321.28 sq. inches + the two overlapped sides (east and west) = 25.20” x 14 cubits or 25.20” x 352.8” = 8,890.56 sq. inches x 2 sides = 17,781.12 sq. inches.  Combining the two opposite ledges atop the same tier is:  20,321.28 sq. inches + 17,781.12 sq. inches = 38,102.4 (bottom horizontal base).  Grand Total of surface area of bottom tier vertical four sides and ledge atop = 81,285.12 sq. ins. + 38,102.4 sq. ins. = 119,387.52 sq. inches = “36” affording us ample evidence that the Son (27) submitted His will to the Eternal Father-God (36).

·        Middle Tier, 1 Cubit Ledge & ½ Cubit Rim:

4 full vertical sides @ 4 cubit height x 14 cubit length and width or 100.8” (4 cubit height) x 352.8” (length of middle tier) = 35,562.24 sq. inches x 4 sides = 142,248.96 sq. inches (vertical middle tier sides) + horizontal ledge atop the middle tier of 1 cubit x opposite sides of the full length/width of the middle tier of 14 cubits or 25.20” x 352.8” = 8,890.56 sq. inches x 2 full sides = 17,781.12 sq. inches + 2 horizontal ledges on opposites sides minus the 2 cubit overlaps or 25.20 x 302.4” (i.e., 12 cubits, not 14) = 7,620.48 x 2 (opposite ledge sides of lesser area) = 15,240.96 sq. inches.  Combining the two ledge “sets” we arrive at:  17,781.12 + 15,240.96 = 33,022.08 sq. inches (ledge area) on the 1 cubit ledge atop the Middle Tier.  Then there is the 1/2 cubit wide rim surrounding the base of the Altar Hearth attached to the ledge atop the Middle Tier.  Just as we did with the ledge measurements we must do with rim extensions – i.e., two full opposite side measures of 1/2 cubit @ 12.6” x 352.8” (full 14 cubit length) = 4,445.28 x 2 full lengths = 8,890.56 sq. inches + 2 lesser/overlapped rim sides or 1/2 cubit @ 12.6” x 302.4” (12 cubits) = 3810.24 sq. inches x 2 opposite lesser sides = 7,620.48 sq. inches – these 2 figures/rim areas are then added together:  8,890.56 sq. inches + 7,620.48 sq. inches = 16,511.04 sq. inches (Rim area)

·        Total Surface Areas of Middle Tier:

(1) 142,248.96 sq. inches = Middle Tier 4 vertical sides

(2) 33,022.08 sq. inches (4 ledge surface areas)

(3) 16,511.04 sq. inches (1/2 cubit rim)

(4) Grand Total of Middle Tier surface areas: 191,782.08 sq. inches = “36” indicative of the fact that the Father’s love for the Son (base tier) in eternity past (bottom tier) and in the time present (middle tier) is unchanging and altogether affirming of His love.


·        Altar Hearth 

We now arrive at the Altar Hearth with its simplicity of measurement, in that the more difficult measurements have been calculated.  Here we find that the Altar Hearth’s sides match those of the Middle Tier, 4 cubits vertical height and the Altar Hearth top surface only area is 12 cubits x 12 cubits (width and length are the same as a perfect square); therefore, determining its sides = 4 cubits x 12 cubits = 1 side x 4 sides = Total Sq. Inches…

100.8” (4 cubit height for each of the four sides) x 302.4” (12 cubits) = 30,481.92 sq. inches (on one vertical side of the Altar Hearth) x 4 sides (vertical four sides of Altar Hearth) = 121,927.68 sq. inches = “36” in that the Eternal God is satisfied with the offering of the Son.  If we were to add in the surface area of the Altar Hearth as in 302.4” x 302.4” = 91,445.76 sq. inches and add this figure of “36” to the “36” on the sides of the Altar Hearth we would have this calculation (minus its immediate base):

121,927.68 sq. inches (sides of Altar Hearth) + 91,445.76 sq. inches (Altar Hearth surface area) = 213,373.44 sq. inches = “27” which is the Messiah, the Son Whose perfect sacrifice is well-pleasing to the Father … only when we add in this measurement do we see the Son and declare:  Worthy is the Lamb!  The Son is the basis of the Millenarian Altar and He is its offering – sacrifice – its conclusion.

·        Total Surface Summations:

If we were to add all the surface measurements on the exterior of the Millenarian Altar our calculations would look like this:

(1) 113,875.2 = “27” = Base Tier surface area, ledge and 9” rim

(2) 119,387.52 sq. inches = “36” = Bottom Tier surface area and ledge

(3) 191,782.08 sq. inches = “36” = Middle Tier surface area, ledge and 1/2 cubit rim

(4) 213,373.44 sq. inches = “27” = Altar Hearth surface area – sides and hearth itself

(5) GRAND TOTAL:  638,418.24 = “36” The Eternal God has accepted the offering of the Son!

(6) 638,418.24 / 144 (New Jerusalem Wall) = 4,433.46 = “24” for all that the Father gives to the Son will come to Him = it is for these “24” – the 12 Gates and the 12 Foundations of the Holy City, New Jerusalem that the entire Millenarian Altar bears witness!

Elevation of Ezekiel’s Millenarian Temple – and its Centrality in the Sanctuary:

A summary of the various elevations and their summation is of great interest to us. 

(1) Base/Foundation Tier:             1 cubit  (Ezekiel 43:13)            25.20”

(2) Bottom Tier:                           2 cubits (Ezekiel 43:14)           50.40”

(3) Middle Tier:                            4 cubits (Ezekiel 43:14, 17)     100.80”

(4) Top Tier – Altar Hearth:          4 cubits (Ezekiel 43:15-16)      100.80”

(Note:  The “four horns extending upwards” are not given measurements – Ezk. 43:15; however, the Temple Institute in Jerusalem affirms that their measurement is 18” x 18” x 15” each.)

(5) Grand Total of “Cubit Elevations” = 277.2” = 2 + 7 + 7 + 2 = “18” New Jerusalem Standard

If the elevation of 277.2” is matched to the 18 cubit base or 277.2” x 453.6” (both of which are “18” NJS) we have a product of 125,737.92 = “36” The Eternal God has His stamp upon this majestic Millenarian Altar and it is “eternal” in nature, for the Lamb is upon the Throne. 

14Area and Circumference of a Circle using the Altar’s height of 277.2” as its radius:

If the 277.2” height is used as the radius of a circle, then the circumference of that circle would be calculated as follows:  C = π * d and its area as A = π * r2 – therefore:  C = 3.14 x 554.4” (radius 277.2” x 2 = 554.4”) = C = 1,740.816 = “27” of the full revelation of Messiah in Sacred Christian Canon and the area of that circle would be:  A = 3.14 x 277.2” x 277.2” – therefore, A = 3.14 x 76,839.84” = A = 241,277.098 sq. inches = “40” which connotes “judgment” or “testing/trial” in Holy Writ.  This would be in keeping that the Altar signifies that judgment has been passed upon the sacrifice and offering on our behalf.

Area and Circumference of a Circle using the Altar’s base edge measurement of 453.6” (18 cubits) as its diameter:

C = π * d = C = 3.14 x 453.6” = 1,424.304” = “18” New Jerusalem Standard

A = π * r2 = A = 3.14 x 226.8” x 226.8” (226.8” is radius or 1/2 of 453.6” diameter) = A = 3.14 x 51,438.24 = 161,516.074 sq. inches of the circle’s area or 161,516.074 sq. inches / 144 = 1,121.6394 = “27” Messiah – therefore we conclude, using the 453.6” or 18 cubit base of the Altar and using it as the diameter of a circle that we have the Messiah as the “content” of that circle and the circumference of that circle or its expression is the New Jerusalem. 

Cubing Ezekiel’s Millenarian Altar using its Base as One Primary Edge (artificial)

If we “cube” Ezekiel’s Millenarian Altar using either 277.2” as its radius/diameter/edge or the 18 cubit base as its diameter/edge (i.e., 453.6 Linear Inches) we arrive at this calculations multiplying either number set by 12 (12 edges in a cube to parallel the cube appearance of the New Jerusalem):

Cubing the Altar’s Height or Base to arrive at Linear Inch sums (12 edges of a cube):

277.2” x 12 = 3,326.4” = “18” New Jerusalem Standard and is a replica of the New Jerusalem in miniature.

453.6” x 12 = 5,443.2” = “18” New Jerusalem Standard and is a replica of the New Jerusalem in miniature.

15Surface Area using above calculations:

277.2” x 277.2” = 76,839.84 sq. inches x 6 (sides of a cube) = 461,039.04 sq. inches = 27 Messiah or

76,839.84 / 144 = 3,201.66 = “18” New Jerusalem Standard of Measurement

453.6” x 453.6” = 205,752.96 sq. inches x 6 (sides of a cube) = 1,234,517.76 sq. inches = 36 Eternal God or 205,752.96 sq. inches / 144 = 8,573.04 = “27” Messiah…therefore, by using the elevation of Ezekiel’s Millenarian Altar we see Messiah’s intention in achieving through redemption (i.e., the Altar – the shedding of blood) the New Jerusalem and that the Altar’s base measurements when cubed tell us that the Eternal God (36) when “integrated” with the Wall of the New Jerusalem will bring us to see that only through Messiah (27) can that goal be achieved.

Cubic Inch Fullness/Capacity/Volume of the 277.2” (elevation of the Altar) or the 453.6” base of the Altar and determining the interior or the capacity of a cubed Altar using either one of these calculations; therefore:

277.2” x 277.2” x 277.2” = 21,300,003,648 cubic inches = “27” Messiah is the fullness of the cubed Altar using it’s elevation as the diameter of a its cube (not its radius) and 21,300,003,648 / 1728 (12” x 12” x 12” = 1728 cubic inches in one cubic foot) = 12,326,391 cubic feet = “27” Messiah, again as its fullness.

453.6” x 453.6” x 453.6” = 93,329,542.656 cubic inches = “54” or 93,329,542.656 / 1728 cubic inches in one sq. foot = 54,010.152 = “18” New Jerusalem Standard of Measurement and “5040” is Plato’s Optimal Number for Society – in other words only the New Jerusalem prepared by Messiah can secure the Optimal Number for society – only then can true and lasting peace, harmony and true unity and governance be achieved for humans.  This conclusion is staggeringly important for humankind:  Therefore, is the Millenarian Altar foreseen by Ezekiel an altogether significant memorial reminding us all how the Eternal God, through offering the Son as the judgment for our sin and the forgiveness thereof, obtaining redemption for humankind, was eternally accomplished for us – and we shall never forget – in order that the Eternal God would have a Bride for His Son.  This is the glorious portrait of the future Millenarian Altar of Ezekiel – do we see it?

A brief word regarding the CENTRALITY of the Altar’s position within the immediate Temple Complex of Ezekiel’s Millenarian vision of the Temple and the Altar – its position is altogether obvious and connotes the supreme importance of that future City wherein the Builder and Maker thereof is God…for the Lamb sits upon its throne as testament, witness to His everlasting love, mercy and justice. As the graphic above so indicates:  The Altar occupies the central focus of the Millenarian Temple.  It stands out with classic distinction.  To the Christian it forever hearkens to the Centrality of the Cross and bespeaks of One Who gave His All for the Bride, the Holy City, New Jerusalem. 

A Final Measurement taken from the Altar’s Hearth:

The Altar’s Hearth presents the apex of the Father’s love for the Son and of the Son’s Whole Burnt Offering for the “24” – however, we must be absolutely positive about this proposition.  The 12 x 12 cubit surface area of the Altar Hearth is equal to 302.4 x 302.4 = 91,445.76 sq. inches / 144 sq. inches = 635.04 sq. feet and is equal to the 18 New Jerusalem Standard – once again attesting that “Messiah was cut off, but not for Himself” (Daniel 9:26). 

If, again, we take the entire Altar Hearth as a cube having, again, 12 edges and 6 sides, we discover the following: 

Top and Bottom = 91,445.76 x 2 = 182,891.52 sq. inches

4 Sides of the Altar Hearth = 100.8” (4 cubits) x 302.4” (12 cubits) = 30,481.92 x 4 sides = 121,927.68 sq. inches –

Combining all the “cubed Altar hearth surface and bottom area” to mirror the cube of the New Jerusalem, we discover:

182,891.52 sq. inches + 121,927.68 sq. inches = 304,819.2 sq. inches = “27” which again is the full revelation of Messiah as the perfect sacrifice – for the Altar is the offering of the Lamb of God and abides the memorial for all to witness.   And, just why did the Son yield Himself to the Father’s will – it was not for Himself, it was for us He suffered, bled and died – for our sin and our shame; therefore cannot we see this?  Absolutely:  For 304,819.2 sq. inches (27) / 144 (the Wall of the New Jerusalem) produces:  2,116.8 = 18 The Standard of the New Jerusalem, the Bride of the Lamb.  Is not this Millenarian Altar a marvelous display of His Eternal Purpose for the Ages?  I believe so…and if we were to find the Altar’s uppermost capacity we would find this:  12 cubits (length) x 12 cubits (width) x 4 cubits (height) = 576 sq. cubits = 18 New Jerusalem and furthermore, 302.4” x 302.4” x 100.8” = 9,217,732.608 / 144 = 64,012.032 = 18 Standard of the New Jerusalem.  There is little doubt that through the offering up of the Son by the Eternal Father that He did not do this for Himself but to prepare the Bride of Messiah, the New Jerusalem.

The Horns of the Altar allow the Millenarian Altar of Ezekiel to Equate to the Great Pyramid of Giza and thence to the New Jerusalem…

Although the measurements of the authoritative horns of Ezekiel’s Millenarian Altar are not given, we do have evidence contained within the Septuagint Version of the Hebrew Sacred Text (translated from the Hebrew into the Greek) which indicates that the horns were 1 cubit in height (Ref. Milgrom, article – “Altar” – Encyclopedia Judaica 2, col. 763: 12 cubits [height of Ezekiel’s Altar] including the horns [1 cubit inclusive]); therefore, the overall height/elevation of Ezekiel’s Millenarian Altar would be a fractal of the perimeter of the Great Pyramid of Giza, as follows:  12 Cubits (11 cubits + 1 Cubit of the horns) x 25.20” = 302.4” (cf. GPG @ 756’ base x 4 (perimeter of its base) = 3024’.

This calculation aligns the Altar in Ezekiel with measurements of the GPG, for when we multiply the 302.4” and convert the Altar’s elevation into a cube, using its elevation of 302.4” as the primary edge of such a “cubed altar” - then we discover the following:  302.4” x 12 (12 edges in a cube) = 3,628.8” which is a fractal of the GPG’s base measurement in inches @ 36,288 Linear Inches (i.e., 756’ x 4 = 3024’ x 12” = 36,288 inches) and, of course, both the GPG and, therefore, the Altar, translate quickly into the measurements of the New Jerusalem.  This is truly remarkable.

However, we can demonstrate the esoteric 18 x 18 x 18 Cubit Structure (see below) – but by taking the 12 cubits as its “newly discovered height” (adding in the horns upon the altar) and its length and width (base) as 18 x 18 we would/could see a structure that is 18 (length) x 18 (width) x 12 (height) (cubed); therefore, the total number of cubits on this similar esoteric structure would be:  18 cubits (width and length or top and bottom) x 8 = 144 cubits + 4 ea. 12 cubit edges for its height or 4 x 12 = 48 cubits or 144 cubits + 48 cubits = 192 Linear Cubits (a cubed altar – given its actual base in cubits and its actual height, including in the horns of the altar to equal 12 cubits in elevation). 

Therefore:  192 cubits x 25.20” = 4,838.4” = “27” Messiah Revealed = thus, the Memorial to Messiah as the Suffering Servant is wholly revealed in these dimensions and this is confirmed by its newly-found volume/capacity wherein 18 x 18 x 10 (all cubits) = 3,888 sq. cubits = “27” Messiah.  Also, 453.6” (18 cubits) x 453.6” (18 cubits) x 302.4” (12 cubits) = 62,219,695.104 cubic inches = “45” Messiah time of Blessing and Second Coming in Christian theology (Daniel 12:11-12) and the 45 Days of Blessing (i.e., 1335 – 1290 = 45).  Likewise, 62,219,695,104 cubic inches / 1728 cubic inches (a cubit foot as in 12” x 12” x 12” = 1728 cubic inches or 1 cubic foot) = 36,006.768 cubic feet = “36” The Eternal God without beginning or ending.  Messiah First Coming as the Suffering Servant (27) and His Second Coming in Blessing (45) is altogether acceptable by the Eternal God (36). 

The Cube of Ezekiel’s Altar


In that the Millenarian Altar of Ezekiel is tiered – and that up to 6 cubits (i.e., 18 cubits x 18 cubits perimeter and the top Altar Hearth 12 cubits x 12 cubits – it is, therefore, geometrically impossible to form as an overall cubical rectangle.  Its height, minus the 18” horns of the altar upon its hearth, measures 11 cubits (1 cubit at its base; 2 cubits at the lower settle; four cubits at the upper settle; and, finally 4 cubits at the Altar hearth). 

Notwithstanding, we can construct a geometric expression of the complete Altar by ascending vertical lines from each of the four base 90° corners upwards and create a “top platform” that would equal its base of 18x18 cubits; thus, we would have four height edges of 11 cubits each.  Therefore, the total linear number of cubits would mean that the base 18x18 cubits and the artificial top at 18x18 + the 4ea. 11 cubits forming its height. 

18 x 8 (Eight edges of this artificial rectangular cube – top and bottom measurements) = 144 (notice something here?) + 11 cubits x 4 (Four edges of this artificial rectangular cube – height; excluding the height of the horns) = 44 cubits.  Therefore, 144 + 44 = 188 cubits or a total of 188 x 25.20” = 4,737.6 = “27” (Messiah fully revealed – as it should be!).  Also, 18 x 18 x 11 would give us its cubic capacity in cubits = 3,564 = “18” New Jerusalem Standard of Measurement; thus, “Messiah was cut off, but not for himself” (Daniel 9:26) = the entire Altar is for the New Jerusalem!  Likewise, this artificial capacity/volume can be measured in cubic inches:  453.6” (18 cubits) x 453.6” (18 cubits) x 277.2” (11 cubits) = 57,034,720.512 sq. inches = “36” The Eternal God.  This figure is then divided by 144 (12” x 12” = 144 sq. inches = 1 sq. foot); therefore, 57,034,720.512 sq. inches / 144 sq. inches = 396,074.448 sq. feet = “45” and this “45” is directly connected to the “45” Days of Blessing between the terminus of Desolations (1,290 days) and those who wait until the 1,335th day or 45 days beyond Desolations (i.e., 1,335th days less 1,290th day = 45 days), the time of the Coming of Messiah to Earth (Daniel 12:11-12).  However, 12”x12”x12” = 1,728 sq. inches or 1 cubic foot (capacity); therefore, 57,034,720.512 sq. inches / 1,728 sq. inches = 33,006.204 cubic feet = “18” The New Jerusalem Standard of Measurement.  Messiah’s coming as the Lion of the Tribe of Judah (“45”) is for the express purpose that He might have His Bride, the Holy City, New Jerusalem (“18”). 

Now, using the base measurement of 18 cubits as the prime measurement and cubing Ezekiel’s Altar thereby we would arrive at:  18 cubits x 12 edges (perfectly square cube akin to that of the New Jerusalem herself which “18” is her overall expression as in 15 x 12 edges = 180 or “18” – but, 18 cubits x 12 edges = 216 linear cubits (an immediately recognizable figure for it is the Name of God (216) and the diameter of the Moon (2160) and the circumference of the nautical Earth (21,600 miles). 

Furthermore, this “cubed Altar” at the center of Ezekiel’s Millenarian Temple at 18x18x18 Cubits (esoteric) = 5,832 cubic cubits or 5832 = “18” New Jerusalem Standard of Measurement.  And, in inches:  216 Cubits x 25.20” = 5,443.2” which, again, is the measurement of the New Jerusalem Standard as in 5 + 4 + 4 + 3 + 2 = 18.  Likewise, 453.6” (18 cubits) x 453.6” (18 cubits) x 453.6” (18 cubits) = 93,329,542.656 cubic inches = “54” which is Plato’s Optimal Number but to determine the number of square feet we would divide 12x12x12 = 1728 sq. inches (equal to one square foot) into 93,329,542.656 = 54,010.152 = “18” New Jerusalem Standard of Measurement.  Therefore, in our esoteric model of Ezekiel’s Millenarian Altar we have produced a replica of the New Jerusalem herself – and rightly so, for the Optimal Numbered Society is realized (54) is naught but the New Jerusalem as an ALTAR in that herein is the “throne of God and of the Lamb” (Revelation 22:1) and where there is “…no temple in it, for the Lord God Almighty and the Lamb are its temple….the city had no need of the sun or of the moon to shine in it, for the glory of God illuminated it.  The Lamb is its light…and the nations of those who are saved shall walk in its light, and the kings of the earth bring their glory and honor into it….its gates shall not be shut at all by day (there shall be no night there)….and they shall bring the glory and the honor of the nations into it” (Revelation 21:22-26)…the LAMB upon the throne is the central figure of the New Jerusalem…thus is the Altar in the midst thereof!

Moses, Solomon and Ezekiel’s Altars – A Comparison

Now that we have secured an artificial six-sided rectangular cube of Ezekiel’s Millenarian Altar (using its 11 cubit elevation as its height and 18 cubits x 18 cubits as its top/base), we can have a degree of comparison with the Altars of Moses and Solomon:

Moses’ Altar for the Tabernacle in the Wilderness:  Length 5 Cubits; Width/Breadth 5 Cubits; Height 3 Cubits

Solomon’s Temple Altar:  Length 20 Cubits; Width/Breadth 20 Cubits; Height/Depth 10 Cubits

Ezekiel’s Millenarian Altar:  Length 18 Cubits; Width/Breadth 18 Cubits; Height/Depth 11 Cubits

Moses’ Total Linear Cubits as a “cubed altar” = 20 + 20 + 12 = 52 Linear Cubits

Solomon’s Total Linear Cubits as a “cubed altar” = 80 + 80 + 40 = 200 Linear Cubits

Ezekiel’s Total Linear Cubits as an artificial “cubed altar” 72 + 72 + 44 = 188 Cubits

Firstly, if we were to add all three altars together in linear cubits:  52 + 200 + 188 = 440 Linear Cubits x 25.20” =11,088” or 1 + 1 + 8 + 8 = 18 New Jerusalem Standard of Measurement; again, all three altars – Prophet, Priest and King was “not for Himself” but “for” the New Jerusalem – this is brought out more clearly as we divide by 12” to determine the number of feet in all these linear measurements; thus:  11,088” / 12” = 924 = “15” which is a fractal of the one edge of the New Jerusalem’s 1,500 miles or 11,088” / 144 = “77” which connotes “completion upon completion” and the Eternal Sabbath Rest for on the Seventh Day He rested and this is the finality of all His work past and future in time – 7 after creation and 7 at the close of time or “77.”

The height of all the altars together totals:  12 + 40 + 44 = 96 = 15 = the Edge of the New Jerusalem’s 1,500 miles or 15 is a fractal of 1,500.  Also:  96 x 25.20” = 2,419.2 = “18” New Jerusalem Standard of Measurement.

All of the base configurations of the three altars:  20 + 80 + 72 = 172 Linear Cubits x 25.20” = 4,334.4 = “18” = New Jerusalem Standard of Measurement + 172 Linear Cubits (top measurements which would also equal “18”).  When these two sets of “18” are added together we arrive at “36” The Eternal God without beginning or ending.  Or, we add them together as 172 + 172 = 345 Linear Cubits x 25.20” = 8,694” = “27” Messiah Revealed.  Therefore, the Eternal God (36 = the top and bottom measurements of all three altars in linear cubic edges equaling to 24 separate edges for there are 8 edges (top and bottom per altar) views these altars as the “means” (through Messiah “27”) to effect the New Jerusalem (“18”) – thus, is His hand displayed.

In capacity/volume if we were to add up all the heights:  12 + 40 + 44 = 96 Cubits; all the lengths:  20 + 80 + 72 = 172; and all the widths:  20 + 80 + 72 = 172 and multiply their sums to arrive at cubic cubits we would have:

172 x 172 x 96 = 2,840,064 Cubic Cubits = “24” demonstrating His Divine governance in that the “24” Elders of the New Jerusalem (12 Patriarchs of Israel and 12 Apostles of the Lamb) display how “they will rule and reign with Him a thousand years.”  The measurement in inches displays the following:  172 cubits = 4,334.4” x 4,334.4” x 2,419.2” (96 cubits) (and please note all three of these measurements of cubits converted to inches equal 18 or 18x18x18 giving us 5,832 which is “18” NJS) = 45,449,566,912.512 cubic inches = “63” and if we divide 45,449,566,912.512 cubic inches by 144 we arrive at 315,621,992.448 = “54” with both of these together, of course, are 63 = 9 and 54 = 9 … 9 + 9 = “18” New Jerusalem Standard of Measurement; however, to arrive at the number of cubic feet in 45,449,566,912.512 cubic inches we must divide by 12x12x12 = 1,728 cubic inches (or the number of cubic inches in one cubic foot) – therefore:  45,449,566,912.512 cubic inches / 1,728 cubic inches (or one cubic foot) = 26,301,832.704 = “36” which connotes the Eternal God without beginning or ending.

The difference between the 252 linear cubit measurements of the Altars of Moses and Solomon from that of Ezekiel’s 188 cubits is as follows:  252 – 188 = 64 cubits x 25.20” = 1,612.8” = “18” New Jerusalem Standard of Measurement and the 12 cubit difference between Solomon’s Altar and Ezekiel’s Altar:  200 cubits – 188 cubits = 12 cubits x 25.20” = 302.4” which is a fractal of the base of the Great Pyramid of Giza in feet or 3024’ x 12” = 3,628.8” x 3 (12 cubed edges) = 10,886.4 or 108,864 = “36” the Eternal God or “108” = “18” and “864” = “18” or 108 is a fractal of the Moon’s radius of 1080 miles and its “864” is a fractal of the Sun’s 864,000 mile diameter.   The difference between Moses’ Altar and that of Solomon’s is:  200 – 52 = 148 cubits x 25.20” = 3,729.6 = “27” for Messiah is in view as the Suffering Servant.  The difference between Moses’ Altar and that of Ezekiel’s:  188 – 52 = 136 Cubits x 25.20” = 3,427.2” = “18” New Jerusalem Standard of Measurement. 

The actual linear measurements of all three altar “hearth zones” – their tops – Moses:  20 (5x5 or 4x5 = 20 linear cubits); Solomon 80 (20x20 or 4x20 = 80 linear cubits); Ezekiel 48 (taking the literal measurement of the Altar Hearth at 12 cubits x 12 cubits or 4x12 = 48 linear cubits) – or 20 + 80 + 48 = 148 x 25.20” = 3,729.6 = “27” perfectly attesting to the Suffering Messiah who came as a offering for sin.  These three top altar measurements are absolute; therefore, taking their “area” calculations:  Moses:  126 in. x 126 in. = 15,876 sq. in.; Solomon:  504 in. x 504 in. = 254,016 sq. inches; Ezekiel:  302.4 in. x 302.4 in. = 91,445.76 sq. in.  Now, their totals:  15,876 + 254,016 + 91,445.76 = 361,337.76 sq. inches = “36” the Eternal God without beginning or ending for “this is My Beloved Son in Whom I am well pleased” – i.e., the price that the Suffering Servant, the Messiah (27), paid upon the Altars as our Priest, our King and our Prophet (Moses, Solomon and Ezekiel) is well pleasing to the Father (36).  For when the Father views these altars, He sees as Abraham saw in offering up Isaac on this same Altar – prefiguring that day – this is My Beloved Son:  361,337.76 sq. inches / 144 (Wall of the New Jerusalem) = 2,509.29 = “27” and 361,337.76 sq. inches / 25.20” the Sacred Cubit = 14,338.8 = “27.”    

The Dimensions of the Millenarian Sanctuary Where the Ezekiel’s Altar is Located – Ezekiel 45:1-5

17There are significant dimensions given in Ezekiel 40-48 concerning the future Kingdom, the Holy District, Temple, Sanctuary, the Prince’s Portion, the Levites Portion and plots for Urban Homesteading,    etc. – however, we have chosen to focus on just one of them here, the Holy District’s “Sanctuary within the land allotted the ‘Priests’ which is a plot that is 25,000 cubits by 10,000 cubits or 25,000 + 25,000 + 10,000 + 10,000 = 70,000 cubits x 25.20” = 1,764,000 Linear Inches = “18” New Jerusalem Standard.

Also, 25,000 cubits x 25.20” = 630,000 Linear Inches and 10,000 cubits x 25.20” = 252,000 Linear Inches; therefore, 630,000 LI x 252,000 LI = 158,760,000,000 sq. inches or “27” (Messiah) / 144 (Wall of the New Jerusalem) = 1,102,500,000 = “9” and this “9” when added to the Levite portion, which is identical to that of the Priests portion = “18” New Jerusalem Standard; therefore, all “priestly” portions are so dedicated to the New Jerusalem Standard.   Now, the Sanctuary’s measurements within the Priest’s portion:

·        Ezekiel 45:2 – 500x500 rods with fifty cubits around it for an open space

·        1 Rod = 16.5’ or 5 ½ yards therefore 500 x 16.5’= 8,250’ Linear Feet x 4 (4 edged perimeter of the “plot”) = 33,000 sq. ft. x 3 (arriving at a 12-edged cube to match the object of the New Jerusalem) = 99,000 Linear Feet = 9 + 9 = “18” New Jerusalem Standard; therefore, the layout of the Holy District (cubed) matches the New Jerusalem …Likewise:  There are 12 inches per foot, 33/2 feet per rod, 4 rods per chain, and 80 chains per mile – multiplying these numbers we get 12” * 33/2 * 4 * 80 = 63,360 inches; therefore, 1 rod = 16.5’ and 16.5’ = 198” and 63,360” / 198” = 320 rods in one mile x 16.5 feet = 5,280’ x 12” = 63,360” = “18” (6 + 3 + 3 + 6 = 18) = The Standard of the New Jerusalem, 18.

·        ROD = 5.5 yards x 3 = 16.5' x 12" = 198 inches x 500 Rods = 99,000 inches x 4 = 396,000 linear inches (perimeter of the 500x500) x 3 (cubed) = 1,188,000 Linear Inches / 12" = 99,000 Linear Feet all 12 edges and 99,00 inches x 4 = 396,000 Linear Inches / 12" = 33,000 Linear Feet x 12 (edges) = 396,000 Linear Feet or 33,000 x 33,000 = 1,089,000,000 sq. feet = 18 and 1,089,000,000 / 43,560 = 25,000 acres x 6 sides = 150,000 acres. Or 1 edge in sq. feet of 1,089,000,000 sq. feet x 6 sides = 6,534,000,000 sq. feet = "18" 

·        The rod is a unit of length equal to 5.5 yards, 5.0292 metres, 16.5 feet, or 320 of a statute mile. A rod is the same length as a perch or a pole. In old English, the term lug is also used.[1][2] (Wikipedia)

·        Again:  500 rods x 16.5’ = 8,250’ x 8,250’ = 68,062,500 sq. feet / 43,560 sq. feet (1 acre) = 1,562.5 sq. acres =18 NJS x 6 (cubed sides if comparable to the New Jerusalem object found in the Apocalypse as a cube) = 9,375 sq. acres = 24 and “24” is the number of “governance” for we have the 24 Elders of the New Jerusalem

·        Now, if we take the surface “area” of the Holy District 9,375 sq. acres / 12 = 781.2 = “18” New Jerusalem Standard of Measurement

·        “Open spaces” around the Holy District:  50 cubits surrounding the Holy District on all sides = 50 x 25.20” = 1,260” / 12” to arrive at Linear Feet = 105 Linear Feet – Note:  In some respects this is an “esoteric” measurement juxtaposed to the 500x500 Rods – i.e., it is included within the 500x500 or outside of it (“around it”); however, taking the measurement by itself as 105 Linear Feet and extrapolating it as a cube itself…105 is in fact “15” which is the very fractal of the edge of the New Jerusalem’s Edge; therefore, the extrapolation is quite simple:  15 x 12 cubed edges = 180 = “18” New Jerusalem Standard of Measurement.

·        Please also see Ezekiel’s Vision of the Future by the United Church of God.


The Altar, the Tabernacle, the Temples – but “we seek a city yet to come…Whose Builder and Maker is God” . . . how sufficient is our High Priest, our King, our Prophet!  May His Altar forever be the center of our universe . . . .

“And I heard a loud voice from heaven saying, ‘Behold, the tabernacle of God is with men, and He will dwell with them, and they shall be His people.  God Himself will be with them and be their God’ . . . But I saw no temple in it, for the Lord God Almighty and the Lamb are its temple” (Revelation 21:3, 22).


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